In-hospital drug use was defined as suspected or reported illicit drug usage (syringes found at bedside, altered mental status, overdose) plus a urine drug screen (UDS) with presence of substances other than what was prescribed including opioid and nonopioid drugs of abuse. For example, if patients were prescribed oxycodone, and the opiate test and oxycodone tests were positive, this was not considered in-hospital illicit drug use due to potential cross-reactivity. The UDS was performed with a qualitative point-of-care immunoassay test, which was ordered in cases of clinical suspicion for substance use. Medications for OUD use was defined as prescription for a US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for OUD including buprenorphine, methadone, or extended-release naltrexone at any point during the hospitalization (not for pain control).

Number, rate, and rate ratio of adult and adolescent persons who inject drugs (PWID) living with diagnosed HIV infection, by selected characteristics—United States, 2010. Number, rate, and rate ratio of diagnoses of HIV infection among adult and adolescent persons who inject drugs (PWID), by selected characteristics—United States, 2011. We carried out all estimates per Rao’s method using Microsoft Excel (2007) and verified them using SAS Version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We used the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software version 2 (Biostat, Englewood, NJ) [18], which incorporates assumptions appropriate for synthesizing results from observational studies and clinical trials, to verify results and assess comparable patterns in the data.

Clostridial infections

The CEWG’s greatest strength is its ability to monitor drug-use trends and document regionally specific patterns of drug use. Helping to improve our understanding of injection drug use, its reports include the history of the shift from heroin alone as a primary drug of injection in the late 1970s to the integration of cocaine during the 1980s, both as an independent drug of injection and as used in combination iv drug use with heroin. Also reported was the emergence and eventual decline some 10 years ago of a midwestern epidemic of pentazocine and tripelennamine (Ts and blues) injection. Thus, although not directly involved in the calculation of drug-use prevalence estimates, it can be seen that the CEWG is an invaluable resource in tracking the nature and scope of substance abuse across major metropolitan areas.

  • In addition, generally robust racial/ethnic differences were observed in the proportion of individuals making transitions from one alcohol stage to another.
  • In 1992, 1.7 percent of high school seniors reported having injected a drug during their lives, and 0.8 percent did so in the past year.
  • C Unless otherwise noted, the term United States (US) includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 6 dependent areas of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the US Virgin Islands.
  • This study estimated the number of PWID in the United States to calculate rates of HIV and HCV infection.
  • A national probability survey, conducted from 1999 through 2002, showed that 48% of adults aged 20–59 years who tested antibody positive for HCV reported a history of injection drug use [4].

In recent years, national HIV seroprevalence data among PWID have originated primarily from NHANES [23], which was a data source in our meta-analysis. More recent data on HIV seroprevalence among past-year PWID in 20 cities with high AIDS prevalence was 9%, with similar patterns of higher prevalence among black and Hispanic/Latino compared to white PWID [24]. However, those data on past-year PWID are not directly comparable to our rates which were based on lifetime PWID.

Drug Use Among Youth: Facts & Statistics

Many communities do not have the resources or support to establish effective syringe services programs (SSPs). Barriers to SSPs include legal and regulatory issues, insufficient funding, and misunderstandings about the effectiveness and safety of SSPs. It is important for PWID to know their HIV status so they can take medicine to treat HIV if they have the virus. People who get and keep an undetectable viral load (or remain virally suppressed) can stay healthy for many years and will not transmit HIV to their sex partners. Some examples of Schedule II drugs are cocaine, fentanyl, methamphetamine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. Mental illness and substance abuse (comorbidity) is relatively common among military veterans.

iv drug use statistics

The use of illicit drugs for these same cohorts ranged from 9.6% (nearly a quarter of exposed youth aged 13–14 years) to 42.5% of the oldest adolescents (52.2% of those exposed), respectively. Abuse of illicit drugs was slightly more common than the abuse of alcohol, ranging from 3.4% of youth in the 13- to 14-year cohort to 16.4% of adolescents aged 17 to 18 years old. The median ages of onset for each category were 13 years for the first opportunity to use illicit drugs, 14 years for the first illicit drug use, 14 years for drug abuse with dependence, and 15 years for drug abuse without dependence. Similar to the pattern in alcohol use, there was a slight overall male preponderance in prevalence of stages of drug use, which was most pronounced among older adolescents. The same pattern of racial/ethnic differences was observed across the 3 age cohorts, with black and other racial/ethnic groups having typically lower rates than white or Hispanic adolescents.